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Biometrics is the science of using an electronic device to capture a unique physical trait, to authenticate identity. Examples of biometrics include:

• Retinal Scanning
• Palm Print Capture
• Fingerprint Capture
• Palm Vein Capture

There are two methods of electronically capturing a fingerprint:


An optical scan is the most common method of biometric identification. An optical scan takes a picture of the fingerprint and uses comparison software to verify the captured print against a known, or previously entered print. This optical system replaced the age-old ink and paper method of capturing fingerprints, and is currently the preferred identification method utilized by today’s American judicial system.


Passive Capacitance Resistance scanning is a newer method, accomplished by either a touch or swipe input device. The scanner is used to form an image of the fingerprint patterns on the dermal layer of skin. Each sensor pixel is used to measure the capacitance at that point of the array. The capacitance varies between the ridges and valleys of the fingerprint, since the volume between the valleys of the dermal layer and the sensing element contains an air gap. The dielectric constant of the epidermis and the area of the sensing element are known values. The measured capacitance values are then used to distinguish between fingerprint ridges and valleys. The sensor array pixels each act as one plate of a parallel-plate capacitor, while the dermal layer (which is electrically conductive) acts as the other plate, and the non-conductive epidermal layer acts as a dielectric.

The passive capacitance resistance method is more desirable to use than the optical method because it is harder to “spoof” authentication. It does not store an actual image of the print, but instead requires a “live” finger to be used. The cost of a passive capacitance resistance sensor is dramatically less than optic input devices. FIST Enterprises’ process uses this passive capacitance resistance scanning method for fingerprint capture, utilizing the preferred “live” fingerprint and a “swipe” input method.

Fist Enterprises' "Bio" products cannot be fooled by any of these techniques often used to bypass earlier optic scanners:

• Fingerprint Powder
• Gummy Bears
• Pictures of an Authorized Print
• Wax and Silicone Molds

All of these optic scanner bypass spoofs are rendered ineffective when utilizing a FIST Enterprises authentication device. The sensor has been tested to 200 million swipes, with a false acceptance rate of only 1 in 1.4 million.